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Graphical Abstract

Graphical Abstract


Sean M. Hughes, Claire N. Levy, Fernanda L. Calienes, ..., Ross D. Cranston, Mark J. Cameron, Florian Hladik


In Brief

Many people take the antiretroviral drugs tenofovir and emtricitabine to prevent and treat HIV infection. Hughes et. al show that these medications induce genes and proteins associated with type I/III interferon pathways in the gut. This effect may contribute to HIV inhibition but could also cause chronic immune activation


  • Tenofovir (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) are used for HIV treatment and prevention
  • TDF/FTC induce a type I/III interferon-associated signature throughout the gut
  • IFN I/III induction is confirmed in independent clinical cohorts and 5 assay types
  • IFN I/III induction may contribute to anti-HIV efficacy and chronic immune activation